The Southern Resident Orcas

Updated: Mar 11

If you know anything about orcas, you know they're one special apex predator; they rule the seas. Something you might not have known, however, is that there are 10 different ecotypes! An ecotype is a distinct form or race of a plant or animal species occupying a particular habitat. For orcas in the North Pacific, those ecotypes are:

1. Transients -- only eats marine mammals.

2. Offshores -- consumes sharks, fish, and squid.

3. Residents -- solely eats fish.

These different ecotypes have evolved to fill a different ecological niche in order to coexist with one another. This post will cover the plight of the Southern Resident Orcas.

The Southern Residents are extremely special to people's hearts, the environment, and to science. Scientists have learned so much about these residents and their social structure/matriarchy, shedding light on their life history patterns and possibly how other ecotypes and pods behave. But there's one big problem: the Southern Residents are starving.


Chinook/King salmon constitutes 80% of the Southern Residents' diets. Unfortunately, commercial fishing efforts and the continued existence of the lower four Snake River dams is threatening the extinction of the salmon and the 72-73 remaining Southern Resident orcas. The lower four Snake River dams prevent thousands of salmon from spawning up river and kills 8 million smolts (juvenile salmon) each year. With 40% of Chinook runs locally extinct in the Pacific Northwest, the Snake River is one of the last and largest areas we need to protect for wild salmon.

As per,

"It will take approximately 6 months to breach the first two dams and have a free flowing river for salmon (not including channelization work, agricultural work, etc.) Once breached, it’ll take 14 to 18 months for adult salmon to be in the Pacific Coast. In parallel, it takes 3 to 10 years for salmon with hatcheries.

These four dams are losing money each year, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has to borrow $1.6 billion from the federal government (taxpayers’ money) over the next 2 years just to maintain the four lower Snake River dams. It would only cost $340 million to breach all four dams. If we breach the four lower Snake River dams this year, Eastern Washington would gain $200-300 million in economic benefits every year and an average of 3,000 jobs annually would be created."

It's a no-brainer to breach the dams... Now, the Feds have released the EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) draft stating they have rejected the public's proposal to breach the lower four dams, even after all the research that NOAA and Center for Whale Research has provided and after countless public support to breach them. In March, there will be a 45 day commenting period for the public to state their concerns and tell them to breach the dams in 2020. An important point to note, is the transient orcas are doing very well. Why? Since they eat mammals, like pinnipeds, there's plenty of sea lions for them to eat, so the transients are not starving, unlike their brothers and sisters the residents. Below shows photos captured by NOAA of a southern resident individual between 2015-2019. You can clearly see the emaciation from starvation.

We need YOUR help to keep fighting for the Southern Residents. At Project Kolika, we believe in speaking up for the voiceless. So be their voice and help:

1. 45 Day Public Commenting Period.

Instructions for Comment Submission:

- Copy & paste this in the comments section: "The Southern Resident orcas and Snake River salmon and steelhead will not survive this EIS study process. As a first step, the federal agencies can and need to begin breaching the four lower Snake River dams this year, 2020; these dams kill 8 million smolt a year, and we lost $100 million in 2019 because of them. As a parallel step, the agencies can use this new EIS process to undertake future actions. The federal agencies can no longer afford to drag the process out with another EIS that will take years to while the salmon and orcas go extinct. We have tried expensive bypass systems and more spill, and still, 2019 was another year of costly efforts to recover Snake River salmon with no results. We know the research: southern residents are starving and consequently, fecundity in females has declined dramatically, leading to a quicker extinction event if nothing continues to be done. Federal agencies need to begin the breaching of the Snake River dams this year."

-Then, click here to submit your comment! Make sure to check the "Fish," "EIS," and "Wildlife" boxes, and put down that you're from Washington or Oregon.

2. Write/call to Governor Jay Inslee:


Governor Jay Inslee

Office of the Governor

PO Box 40002

Olympia, WA 98504-0002

Call: 360-902-4111

Say: "Please breach the lower four Snake River dams immediately by 2020 to save our starving Southern Residents."

3. Write/call to Bonneville Power Administration:


BPA, Communications – DK-7,

P.O. Box 14428,

Portland, OR


Call: 800-622-4519

Say: "Please breach the lower four Snake River dams immediately by 2020 to save our starving Southern Residents."

4. Stop eating Chinook/King Salmon.

5. Join the March! And follow our friends, PNW Protectors, for more ways to help.

6. Tell everyone you know.

Change starts with YOU. How will you help save the Southern Residents, Chinook Salmon, and the whole Salish Sea ecosystem from extinction? Tag us on Instagram of your efforts to help save them!



© 2020 by Project Kolika

EIN/TAX ID: 83-3324554

San Diego, CA

Previously known as, Saving Wildlife Project ©2011

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